Tag Archives: 16 Days of Action

Classic Cassandra: Don’t repeat this inaccurate statistic!

https://cassandracomplexblog.wordpress.com/2013/12/01/16-days-rogue-stats/

This is a repost from Chen’s November 2014 post. Relevant because this INCORRECT statistic is still being used – including on the 16 Days of Action’s official facebook page and shared by over 438 FB users. In today’s age of “post-truth”, we owe it to ourselves and the women and girls we fight for to be accurate in our word choices and data to substantiate our work…

” As someone who works in the field of prevention of and response to sexual violence, I use data to advocate for more attention, more action, more resources and am always on the lookout for statistics that are both persuasive and based on sound methodology.  Every year, advocates and activists around the world time the release of fact sheets, infographics, and reports on violence against women to coincide with the 16 Days of Action. Unfortunately, every year, many of these repeat the following INCORRECT factoid about the impact of violence against women.  “Violence against women causes more death and disability among women aged 15-44 worldwide than cancer, war, malaria and traffic accidents combined.” This factioid, or some version of it, has been repeated in multiple reports including by  influential think-tanks,  in fact sheets and briefing papers produced for the UN  and popular campaigns  and even included in articles by magazines  notorious for rigorous fact checking.

This statement has often been wrongly attributed to the World Health Organization (WHO). When I worked for WHO, we would often send out corrections to those using this factoid, to indicate that it was wrong and that its source is not the WHO and yet the factoid persists. Is this a function of our Wikipedia world where we believe what we read without digging deeper to identify the primary source? Or is it simply that something repeated often enough as truth acquires that reputation?

More importantly, where did this factoid come from?  It likely first appeared in a March 1998 briefing by the Panos Institute. My WHO colleagues and I thought it was probably based on an inaccurate reading of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) report published in 1996 or the World Bank’s World Development Report (WDR) in 1993, which includes the GBD data for 1990.  More recently I did a little more digging and I think it is based on a table (table 5) included in a discussion paper “Violence against Women: The Hidden Health Burden” authored by Lori Heise, Jaqueline Pitanguy, and Adrienne Germain for the World Bank in 1994. This paper extrapolates from and builds upon the analysis for the WDR 1993 and estimates that globally among women 15-44, 9.5 million Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) were lost to domestic violence & rape, as compared to 9.0 million for all cancers, 4.2 million for motor vehicle accidents, 2.7 million  for war, and 2.3 million for malaria.  The paper includes an appendix which clarifies the author’s approach to estimating the percentage of DALYs lost to women age 15 to 44 due to conditions that are attributable to domestic violence and rape. The exact methods for estimating these percentages are not specified in the paper but the authors indicate they are on file with World Bank staff.

20 years on, we now have a refined GBD methodology and more recent data from the GBD project, so I thought it would be interesting to look at the 2010 GBD data which are searchable online. In the 2010 report, intimate partner violence (IPV) is included as a risk factor (there are no specific data for rape). The current GBD estimates are that globally about 16.8 million lost DALYs are attributable to IPV as a risk factor for women for all ages.  For women of all ages, 37.8 million DALYs are attributable to Malaria, 80.6 million to cancer, and 20.9 million to transport injuries.

The 2010 GBD estimates are just one source of recent and reliable data on VAW. In 2013 there have been 2 major studies published on VAW. The first, a  report released earlier this year by WHO, the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine and the South African Medical Research Council ,found that  one out of every three women worldwide have experienced physical and/or sexual  violence by an intimate partner or sexual violence by a non-partner. Other key facts from the study: 30% of women worldwide experience violence perpetrated by husbands, boyfriends or other intimate partners and up to 38% of all murders of women are committed by intimate partners. A report released by Partners for Prevention earlier this year provided important multi-country comparative data for the Asia- Pacific region on men’s perpetration of violence against women.  We should be using these more recent data as the basis of our advocacy and awareness-raising.

Opponents of work on violence against women accuse anti-VAW activists of spreading misleading and exaggerated information. There are numerous websites aimed at challenging our work to prevent and respond to VAW. One of their key tactics is to highlight erroneous data used by anti-VAW advocates.  When we use data irresponsibly, we provide fodder for those seeking to undermine our work. As consumers and producers of information we have a duty to be responsible. We must examine the primary sources of the statistics we cite and make sure that we are using the most recent and accurate data available.”

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Making the International Day to End Violence against Women… all about men?

Stop Violence Today, the 25th of November, is the International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women. Activists have commemorated the day since 1981 and have used it to raise awareness of the extent and nature of violence against women around the world. The day was officially recognized by the UN in 1999 and it also marks the start of the annual 16 Days of Activism against Gender-Based Violence campaign which ends on Dec 10th (International Human Rights Day). The theme this year is “From Peace in the Home to Peace in the World: Let’s Challenge Militarism and End Violence Against Women!” The 25th of November was chosen because it was on this day in 1960 that three of the four Mirabal sisters, political activists in the Dominican Republic, were assassinated on orders of Dominican ruler Rafael Trujillo. This day is specifically focused on highlighting the reality of violence against women and advocating to eliminate this violence rather than focusing on gender-based violence. Its clear from recent news stories that violence against women remains a common phenomenon in schools, workplaces, and homes. Violence against women and girls happens in relatively peaceful settings, as well as during natural disasters and in conflict. According to World Health Organization “35% of women worldwide have experienced either intimate partner violence or non-partner sexual violence in their lifetime.” The problem is often hidden and unaddressed. Responses to support survivors of violence are insufficient but must be implemented along with prevention as the key to ending violence against women. In this fight to eliminate violence against women, both women and men must be involved. The importance of men and boys as allies in the fight against violence against women is noted in the recently published  Lancet Series on Violence against Women and Girls and at the recent Men Engage Global Symposium. There are both national and international efforts to increase the positive engagement of men and boys in the efforts to end violence against women and girls. HOWEVER, being an ally doesn’t mean shifting the focus away from the problem and instead focusing on men’s role in working to end it.

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White Ribbon walk in Sydney, Australia 2014

In Australia, the 25th of November is now known as “White Ribbon Day” after a male-led campaign focused on men ending violence against women. By changing the name of the day, the campaign has made the day about men and not about women. In particular it has effectively shifted the focus away from women who experience violence and from violence that is often hidden and unacknowledged. By doing so the campaign renders violence and the women it is perpetuated against invisible. On the one day of the year which is set aside to commemorate and honor women and girls who experience violence – those who survive and those who have not, we must keep the focus on women and girls as a reminder of what we are working towards. We can not end violence against women otherwise.